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Model D-3 Automatic Mixing Controller

Dugan Model D-3 system

The Model D-3 Automatic Mixing Controller helps professional audio mixers handle multiple live mics without having to continually ride their individual faders. The eight-channel Processor patches into the digital insert points of a digital audio mixing console. The Model D-3 detects which mics are receiving input and makes fast, transparent cross-fades, freeing the mixer to focus on balance and sound quality instead of being chained to the faders. The D-3's voice-controlled crossfades track unscripted dialogue perfectly, eliminating cuing mistakes and late fade-ups while avoiding the choppy and distracting effects common to noise gates.

The Model D-3 incorporates three Dugan-patented technologies:

  • The Dugan Speech System™ automatically manages any number of live mics in unscripted talking situations.
  • The Dugan Music System™ offers automatic downward expansion to help reduce feedback and noise pickup in live music performances (opera, back-up vocalists). Thresholds are adjusted automatically through continuous monitoring of ambient noise levels.
  • Dugan Gain Limiting™ provides continuous, stepless NOM master gain control to prevent feedback and ambient noise build-up when used with either the Music System or manual mic switching.  The combination of these three Dugan technologies make the Model D-3 a unique audio industry tool. Professional connectors and default control settings marked on the unit allow it to be set up and running with any digital console in minutes.

Multiple Applications

The Model D-3 supports a broad spectrum of live mixing applications, including:

  • Broadcast news, talk and game shows
  • Conference reinforcement and video taping
  • Film and television dialogue recording, reality shows
  • Multiple wireless mics for theater and opera
  • Boardrooms and teleconferencing
  • Distance learning

User-Oriented Features

The Model D-3 dramatically improves the performance of live mixing with multiple mics:

  • Eliminates late upcuts
  • Reduces PA feedback and studio noise
  • Reduces phasing when actors are close together
  • Digital I/O for digital consoles
  • Insert loop patching allows full use of mixing console features
  • Separate control panel can be used horizontally on table top or vertically on meter bridge
  • Three control groups for constant ambience with L-C-R panned mics
  • Two different automatic mixing algorithms for speech and music applications
  • Link multiple units for up to 64 inputs
  • Convenient remote control capabilities


How it Works

Dugan Speech System in action

The Dugan Speech System automatically manages any number of live mikes in an unpredictable dialogue situation. The above illustration shows the Speech System in action, offering four snapshots of a three mike system under different conditions of stimulation. For instance, in the first frame no one is speaking, so the inputs are riding at a medium gain, adding up to the gain of one mike. In the second frame, one person is speaking. You'll notice that the gain automatically turns up full, while the other inputs are turned down. In the third frame, another person speaks and the gain automatically shifts to that input, while the other inputs are turned down. And in the fourth frame, when two people speak simultaneously, the gain is automatically shared between them, while the third is turned down.

Dugan Music System

Dugan Music System in action

In the Dugan Music System, each channel has an expander gate with an automatically varying threshold. The gate thresholds follow the sound level picked up by an ambient sensing mike.

Gain limiting sketchDugan Gain LimitingDugan gain limiting

Dugan Gain Limiting System

The Dugan Gain Limiting System is used with the Music System to prevent feedback or noise build-up when several mikes are in use. It doesn't just count how many mikes are on, it continuously monitors the total gain of the system and reduces all inputs smoothly . You decide, by setting the gain limit, how many mikes can come on before gain reduction begins.


A Tool for Both Practical and Artistic Applications

Model D-3 front panel

Control panel of the Model D-3, Input 8 and Master Sections

In addition to the patented functions described above, the "last hold" function provides continuous ambience when desired with the Music System. The "auto mix depth" controls, used with the Music System, set the amount of automatic attenuation for each control group. When the momentary "override" button is pressed, the system fades rapidly to the combination of inputs selected by the override preset switches on each channel. The Model D's "preset" button shifts the system smoothly to a combination of manual, automatic, and mute modes for the channels as programmed on the preset switches. This combination also comes up when power is turned on. A momentary "mute" button allows smoothly dumping all channels without disturbing other settings.

Model D-3 front panel

Model D-3 processor front panel

The processor's front panel includes the power switch, a lock light that indicates digital audio synch, and a window with a keyboard for setting overall system parameters like master/slave mode and the digital audio sync source..

Model D-3 processor back panel

Model D-3 processor back panel

The Model D-3 has four stereo AES inputs and outputs, along with music system threshold inputs for the three control groups. Digital processing can be synched to an internal oscillator, any AES input pair, the DARS (AES black) input, or the word clock input. The LOGIC connector provides easy wiring of remote controls for remote channel muting, and outputs for camera control. Multiple units can be daisy-chained using the ADAT Optical Link connectors. The RS-232 Host connector allows a PC to control all functions and receive all displays. The 10BASE-T connector establishes a DHCP client and accepts commands from a Telnet terminal.

Quality You Can Count On

The Model D-2's circuitry is made in the U.S.A., and is modular for easy servicing. The unit is designed to meet applicable national safety standards. A hard-wire bypass relay in each channel patches all channels through when power is off. For more information about the Model D-3, or to place an order, contact Dan Dugan Sound Design at (415) 821-9776 voice; (415) 826-7699 fax.


Control Panel

The same control panel is used with both the Model D-2 and the Model D-3.

Connectors: Two 5-pin XLR for combined control and power cable. Cable may be connected to either the left side of the control panel or the back.
Dimensions: 3RU, 17" x 5" x 2-1/2" depth behind panel (43 cm x 13 cm x 6.4 cm) without rack ears, 19" wide (48 cm) with rack ears installed.
Weight: 7.2 pounds (3.25 Kg); in shipping box with control cable, 9.1 pounds (4.1 Kg)


Audio I/O: Eight AES/EBU digital inputs on four female XLR connectors. Eight AES/EBU digital outputs on four male XLR connectors.
Gain: unity
Sample Rate: Input: 32 kHz - 96 kHz (integral sample rate conversion) Output: 48 kHz
Bit Depth: 24 bits
Audio Latency: 1.2 ms
Frequency Response: 10 Hz to 22 kHz, +0.0075 dB
Output Noise: -125 dBFS (20 Hz to 20 kHz), -128 dBAFS
Distortion: -125 dB THD
Synchronization Sources: (48 kHz) AES input pair 1/2 (default), 3/4, 5/6, 7/8; internal; word clock input; DARS (AES black) input
Word Clock Output: 48 kHz
Linking:optical, up to 8 units (64 channels) in a ring configuration.
Connectors: Audio, AES/EBU XLR (female inputs, male outputs); DARS input, XLR female; Word Clock I/O, BNC coaxial; Control Panel, 5-pin XLR; 10 BASE T, RJ-45; Host RS-232, DB-9; Linking, ADAT optical; Remote (Logic I/O), DB-25; Power, plug-in screw compression terminal strip.
Logic Inputs: 8 channel mutes, System Override, System Mute, all momentary (while held). TTL, active low (contact to ground).
Logic Outputs: 8 channel active flags. Active low, maximum applied voltage 30V, maximum current sinking 300 mA momentary, 100 mA sustained, inductive load permitted. Internal 51K pull-up to 5V.
Power: 12 VDC 2A; separate power supply unit; input 90 to 264VAC, 47 to 63Hz, 45 VA; Approved UL, CSA, TUV
Dimensions: 2RU, 19" x 3-1/2" x 10" depth behind panel (43 cm x 9 cm x 25 cm)
Weight: 11.5 pounds (5.2 Kg); in shipping box with power supply, 14.5 pounds (6.5 Kg)

Shipping weight of complete system: 23.6 pounds (10.6 Kg)
one year parts and labor